Geology Background


According to Evolutionists, the Earth formed by condensing from a dust cloud along with the rest of the solar system. It supposedly grew as a result of numerous impacts early in its history and then cooled over billions of years and as such it has always been very hot in the center.

About 1785, James Hutton developed an idea called uniformitarianism. The idea can summed up in the following quote, "The present is the key to the past."

Uniformitarianism is a theory that rejects the idea that catastrophic forces were responsible for the current conditions on the Earth. Instead, the theory suggested  that continuing uniformity of existing processes were responsible for the present and past conditions of this planet.

From: Fundamentals of Physical Geography - An Online Textbook

Simply put, the basic assumption of  Uniformitarianism is that a catastrophic event like the Flood never happened. The result is that all geologic features are interpreted  based on processes observed in the post Flood world, while assuming that there was no Flood. This is important to remember when reading about geologic discoveries.

About 1830 Charles Lyell and others developed the geologic column. The Geologic Column is often depicted as fossil layers up on fossil layers, with the simplest on bottom and more complex on top. It is divided into several geologic periods, based on the fossils found in them.

Geolgical Time Scale

This is the real geologic column since it was assembled by comparing fossils from various locations and can not be found intact any place on Earth. In reality the geologic column is nothing but a mental abstraction and exists only in charts.

The underlining principles of Uniformitarian Geology are called the three principles of stratigraphy. They were developed by Nicolas Stenon about 1669.  They are:

  1. Principle of superposition.
  2. Principle of continuity.
  3. Principle of original horizontally

Principle of superposition.

The principle of superposition is the concept that when one of the higher stratum forms, the strata underneath it have already completely formed. When the lower stratum forms, none of the strata above it existed.

Principle of continuity

Strata are formed from sediments in a fluid. Therefore, when any stratum forms it must be bordered on its sides by another solid body. Otherwise, the sediments will run around the earth. When the bare sides of strata are found, an uniformitarian geologist will look for its continuation or find some solid body that could have halted it.

Principle of original horizontally

When a stratum is formed, the  lower surface and surfaces of its sides, corresponded with the surfaces of the adjacent bodies. The upper surface was parallel to the horizon, as far as that is possible. With the exception of the lowest stratum, all the strata were contained in two parallel planes to the horizon and were at one time parallel to the horizon.

All these concepts form the basic assumptions of modern geology regarding the formation and history of rocks.  But there are good scientific reasons for concluding that these assumptions are wrong.

10(c) Concept of Uniformitarianism

geological dating principles questioned / strata experiments

- The Geologic Column: Does It Exist? -


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