Celestial Mechanics 
Celestial Mechanics is the study of the motion of heavenly bodies such as planets and stars. It has its origins in ancient time but known efforts describe the actual notion of these Ptolemy from the city of Alexandria. His model was geocentric with planets moving on various epicycles. centuries later Copernicus developed a simplified heliocentric model then place the sun at the center rater than the Earth. Galileo was fist person to provide observational evidence for a heliocentric. Trying to save the idea of geocentricity, Tycho developed a hybrid geocentric / heliocentric model that in a modified version is use by modern geocentricity. Ironically it turns out that according General Relativity both heliocentricity and geocentricity may be considered correct. General Relativity allows you to choose any frame of reference you want because all frames of reference are equally valid. So this includes not only heliocentricity and geocentricity but Marscentricity, Venuscentricity and even Kepler62fcentricity. It is simply a matter of choosing the most convenient frame of reference. It was however Kepler that first described basic sent of law to describe planetary motion.
These laws helped Newton develop his law of Gravity. Which paved the way to a full understanding of orbital motion, not only helping us better understand how planets move by any object in space. It is this ability to precisely calculate orbits that makes space flight possible. It also makes it possible to understand the motion of every object in space.

Ptolemy 
Nicolaus Copernicus 
Galileo Galilei 
Tycho Brahe 
Johannes Kepler 
Isaac Newton 
Planetary Motion 
Stellar Motion 
Galactic Rotation 
Orbital Mechanics 

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